Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Social Shock - Research Paper Example Normal practices and correspondence attributes are the fundamental component of the anticipation infringement hypothesis. Hope Violation Theory considers correspondence to be the medium through which individuals trade data with each other. Correspondence can likewise be utilized to damage the desires for someone else as either adverse or constructive relying on the connection between the two individuals. Notwithstanding, specialists likewise clarify this hypothesis as in speaking with others; individuals by and large have a desire for the manner in which the other individual will respond verbally or non-verbally. The Expectancy Violation Theory evaluates the manner by which we respond to someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s non-verbal conduct (Kunda and Thagard, 1996). Social stun is when individuals or an individual goes into another culture when they relocate to another spot or experience new individuals around them. The trouble they have in changing in that culture and among the individuals is known as social stun. Anticipation Violation Theory firmly identified with social stun as the individuals who are new to the general public will confront challenges in keeping desires from the individuals concerning what their response will be. As the practices are new, there will be dubious forecasts about the desires for the individuals on the interchanges made whether verbal or non-verbal (Burgoon, 1993). While having a correspondence with someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s, the response of the individual can either be certain or adverse, which implies that either the individual will grin or will show an inconsiderate response (Marques, 1990). The hypothesis looks at that the individuals convey desires when they interface with others and these desires are from the way of life or the people in that culture. They make forecasts about the non-verbal interchanges, and there are times when their desires damage (Jussim et al, 1987). Individual space alludes to a space that must be kept up while connecting
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Inside and External Factors of Management Essay Presentation Organizations depend vigorously on the four essential elements of the board Planning, Organizing, Directing, and Controlling; notwithstanding, the talented administration of inner and outer elements will at last decide the life span of the organization. Supervisory crews are estimated on how rapidly they can construct an organization over a brief period. In any case, the genuine measure is the way well an organization can keep on developing. Organization achievement is consistently advancing as the world changes, making it troublesome on supervisory groups to adjust as inward and outside powers shape new ways. Google is a prime case of a main organization who should continually assess their business goals to stay aware of the changing mechanical scene. Conventional plans of action utilize a top down methodology may leave the organization unfit to change, as the business head can't change. Ã¢â¬Å"It is vital that neither Larry Page nor Sergei Brin, Googles authors, has announced himself boss programming modeler, the identification Bill Gates wears at MicrosoftÃ¢â¬ (Hamel, 2006) Instead the organizers have planned an idea the makes each thought remain on its own benefits. Interior and outer factors, for example, Globalization, Technology, Innovation, Diversity, and Ethics convey enormous load in the board methodologies and the strategy in which thoughts are executed. Arranging Arranging is the first of the four administration capacities. Google figures out how to get ready for their future by perceiving that arranging requires innovative work. Putting resources into new advances requires some investment and cash, and few out of every odd penny or moment can be committed to explore without different hotspots for money. This is the reason Google put resources into littler organizations to support the development of progress in the mechanical world. So despite the fact that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s generally development may encounter moderate periods the general pay will keep on developing with the obtaining of these various littler organizations. Arranging Getting sorted out is pulling in individuals to the association just as gathering and organizing the human, budgetary, physical, enlightening, and different assets expected to accomplish objectives. Ã¢â¬Å"Google is broadly elitist with regards to recruiting. It comprehends that organizations start to slide into average quality when they begin to enlist fair individuals. Googles difficult recruiting process, similar to a Mensa test, values resistance almost as profoundly as genius.Ã¢â¬ (Hamel,Ã¢ 2006) Google likewise permits their workers 20% imaginative time, which is off financial plan, and off task. This off move time can credit to some of GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s most beneficial thoughts and programming usage. Giving the innovative outlet to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s exceptionally imaginative representatives has yielded extraordinary outcomes and is a piece of GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s in general arranging model. Hamel, G. (2006, Apr 27). The executives a la google. The Wall Street Journal Asia. Recovered from http://search.proquest.com/docview/315425991?accountid=35812 A definitive trial of any supervisory group isn't the manner by which quick it can develop its organization for the time being, however how reliably it can develop it over the long haul. In reality as we know it where change is persevering and rebellious, this requests a limit with respect to fast vital adjustment. Much of the time, organizations havent been changing as quick as the world around them.What the slouches have neglected to get a handle on is that what makes a difference most today is definitely not a companys upper hand at a point in time, however its transformative favorable position after some time. [Google] gets this. While Googles development will unavoidably slow, theres a decent possibility that its incomes will bend upward for a considerable length of time. Why? Since its novel administration framework appears to have been intended to make preparations for the hazard factors that so frequently disintegrate an associations developmental potential: When force is ass embled at the main, a convention bound official group can hold a companys ability to change prisoner to its own capacity to adjust. That is the reason it normally takes a monetary emergency and authority change to set an organization on another course. It is critical that neither Larry Page nor Sergei Brin, Googles originators, has broadcasted himself boss programming modeler, the identification Bill Gates wears at Microsoft. Instead of expect theyre trustworthy soothsayers with a perfect option to direct Googles next technique and the one from that point onward, Messrs. Page and Brin have made a Darwinian domain wherein each thought must contend on its benefits, not on the magnificence of its supporters title. Google comprehends that even as its sloping up todays plan of action, it must purchase choices on the future by making a great deal of little Googlettes. Development requests a great deal of new examinations; yet experimentation requires some serious energy and cash, rare wares when each hour of time and each dollar of capital have as of now beenÃ¢ allocated to some crucial undertaking. That is the reason each Google designer can spend up to 20% of his time taking a shot at off-financial plan, out-of-scope ventures. This time is in excess of an advantage; its Googles seed corn for what's to come. The result? In one late period, the greater part of Googles recently propelled items could follow their causes to a 20% undertaking. You have mentioned on-the-fly machine interpretation of chose content from our databases. 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Saturday, August 1, 2020
Having Healthy Family Relationships With Less Stress Stress Management Relationship Stress Print Having Healthy Family Relationships With Less Stress Manage stress by fostering closer relationships within your family By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on September 14, 2018 Morsa Images / Taxi / Getty Images More in Stress Management Relationship Stress Effects on Health Management Techniques Situational Stress Job Stress Household Stress A connection to family provides a certain type of social support that you canât get from other people. Provided they arenât severely emotionally toxic, we can generally depend on our families in times of crisis for emotional and practical support, and sometimes even financial support when weâre desperately in need. Most of the time, the family is a constant in our lives, and a welcome one when there are so many people who are content to drift in and out when circumstances change. Our families carry our history with them, and they generally share our future as well. Who better than siblings, parents, and other close relatives can reminisce with us about our childhoods, or remember pieces of ourselves weâve forgotten? This connection to fond memories, support in times of need and near-unconditional love is a unique way that family brings us happiness as well as relief from stress. Unfortunately, with the complexity of these relationships, theyre not always easy. If you would like to feel more connected to your family, the following resources can help for a variety of family structures: Become Adept at Dealing With Difficult People Dealing with difficult people is never easy. But while it may be better for your stress level and even improve your health to eliminate strained relationships from your life, its not always a simple undertaking when the difficult people are relatives, co-workers, or people you otherwise must have in your life. What to do? These tips on dealing with difficult people can help keep conflict at bay and reduce your stress level. Improve Your Relationships With Healthy Communication Social support is a great stress reliever, but relationships can also be a major source of stress. As conflict is virtually inevitable in any relationship, here are ten important tips on managing conflict in a respectful way that yields positive results, rather than damaging your connection and causing additional stress. Do You Like Who You Are When Youre With Your Family of Origin? When people get together with their families of origin, they often regress to the behavior patterns they had when they were younger, as thatâs how weâre usually most experienced in dealing with parents and siblings. It can be stressful to feel pulled toward old patterns, however, especially if youâve grown beyond these old roles and they no longer reflect who you are. If this describes your situation, here are a few things to try: How to Handle the Stress of Adult Sibling Rivalry Mom always did like you best! Sound familiar? If you feel strained in your relationship with your family because your parents favor another sibling or another siblingâs family, you may be surprised to find that youâre not alone. Learn how to handle sibling rivalry as an adult, and enjoy your family gatherings much more from now on. Heres how. The Family Stress Section The role your family plays in your life, and the health of your family relationships, can really affect your stress levels. Remember, strong family relationships can be a source of strength that you can draw upon in times of stress, and use to expand your enjoyment of the good times you experience in life. A conflicted family relationship can not just deprive you of that support, but they can create additional stress that depletes your ability to cope. You may not be able to completely control the types of relationships you have with your family members--after all, relationships are dynamics that involve more than just one person--but there are many things that you can do to create greater harmony in your relationships, and protect yourself from unnecessary stress and pain. Find more resources for dealing with family relationships here.
Friday, May 22, 2020
The debate over gun control in the U.S today is not merely as welcomed today as it was in the early 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s because of controversy, misunderstanding of the law, and the danger guns cause. In 1791 James Madison had written the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights makes up the first 10 amendments in the Constitution. Madison had to create this Bill of Rights in order to win over the state of New York in order to rewrite the Constitution himself. The right to keep and bear arms is the second amendment in our Constitution. This law itself has always been a major priority and issue since it was created, and it is still a large issue today. Gun control has always been a large issue when it came to the government. We have an ongoing battleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This amendment was written in the idea that men would have guns in order to protect their own states and to retain food for their families, not that they would go around killing other people like civilians in 2012 do. Tha t is why gun control laws were created, in protection for others who do not own a firearm themselves. Ã¢â¬Å"Danger is the biggest idea when it comes to controlling the population and making sure the gun control laws stay in affect. Ã¢â¬Å"The gun ban had an unintended effect: It emboldened criminals because they knew that law-abiding District residents were unarmed and powerless to defend themselves. Violent crime increased after the law was enacted, with homicides rising to 369 in 1988, from 188 in 1976 when the ban started. By 1993, annual homicides had reached 454. [...] Since the gun ban was struck down, murders in the District have steadily gone down, from 186 in 2008 to 88 in 2012, the lowest number since the law was enacted in 1976.Ã¢â¬ (Jeffery Shapiro, Wall Street Journal) This quote explains how the new gun laws made it more efficient for criminals to come after their victims because they now knew that majority of their victims would not be carrying a defense weapon. These laws made the crimes increase, but once the gun ban was gotten rid of crime was at its now lowest numbers in 2012. So the United States now knows that guns being banned do not help to prevent any kind of danger orShow MoreRelatedGun Control Against Or For? Essay1635 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHopsin Gun Control Against or For? 9/21/2015 In the United States gun control has become very important, every time you watch the news or read the newspaper you hear about gun related violence in the U.S. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just war, suicide, and gang related incidents, it is kids killing kids. On February 29, 2000 there was six year old boy who accidently killed a classmate, who was also six years old. Prior that day the two children was witnessed to have been a in a fight and the boy brought the gun to simplyRead MoreThe Arguments Against Gun Control Essay1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe arguments against and for gun control? Gun control is a controversial topic in the United States. Therefore, the arguments against gun control are whether or not there is gun control law, and people still can find firearms from some illegal place. Second, the 2nd AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s allows people have the rights to own guns for self-defense. Third, my friend gives me detailed explanation about why he likes to own a gun. On the other hand, I also r esearch some arguments for gun control. People who voteRead MoreThe Argument Against Gun Control Essay1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthis paper, I consider the topic of gun control. First, I present DixonÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in support of gun control, which is that all personal guns should be banned. Second, I introduce HuemerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument against the regulation of guns, which is that banning personal firearms is not justified. Third, I critique HuemerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument against gun control on the grounds of three claims. First, the right to own a gun is nullified by its negative repercussions. Second, gun control does not violate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rightRead MoreArgument Against Gun Control1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Final Paper: Argument Against Gun Control The argument on firearm regulation has been a heated discussion for many years. On one side of the debate, we have people in favor placing restrictions on guns, while, on the opposite end of the spectrum, we have people fighting the regulation of guns. People in favor gun restrictions believe gun control can reduce crime ,while, the people against gun control believe having the right to bearRead MoreAn Argument Against Gun Control Essay912 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslaw to outlaw all guns would be more effective at disarming law-abiding citizens than at disarming the criminals who abuse them. If guns were outlawed, the criminals would not stop carrying guns, but the good, law-abiding citizens would. It would do nothing about the illegally obtained handguns in the possession of criminals. In The NRA is Right, Josh Sugarmann states that Ã¢â¬Å"One tenet of the National Rifle AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s faith has always been that handgun controls do little to stopRead MoreEssay on An Argument Against Gun Control773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArgument Against Gun Control An Argument Against Gun Control As long ago as 1789, the creators of the Constitution realized the importance of guns in American society. The Second Amendment states,A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. No loopholes, or legal caches exist in this statement. The Founding Fathers allow for no restriction of the private ownership of firearmsRead MoreAgainst Gun Control Of The United States1145 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnglish II November 1, 2015 Against Gun Control Crime and guns, the two always seem to be acting together, however, these two elements are absolutely nothing alike. Do guns commit the horrific crimes? Do the laws placed on gun control keep the citizens of the United States safe? These are the questions many citizens and lawmakers are asking themselves when they try to launch laws on gun control. Although many people are for gun control, they do not realize that gun control violate the United StatesRead MoreArguments For And Against Increased Gun Control994 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis paper analyses data from several sources to create a more complete understanding of the arguments for and against increased gun control in the US. While this paper will not cover all of the factors that should be taken into account it does cover some of the more prominent ones are discussed. The first has to do with the effects weapons may have on people, more specifically called the weapons effect. Second is the effect of intent and the difference bet ween aggression and violence. The thirdRead MoreAmericas Debate Against Gun Control1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¯ » ¿ The United States and the war on Gun Control The gun control issue has recently created a massive uproar throughout the U.S. due to some major horrific events such as the Virginia Tech shooting in 2007, where 32 people were killed, the Sandy Hook shooting in 2012 where 27 people were killed, mostly children, and the Columbine shooting in 1999 where 13 people were killed, (CNN) as well as many others. To some, it is a crime issueRead MorePersuasive Essay Against Gun Control1934 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswould outlaw guns would be a more of a disadvantage to the law-abiding citizens than it would be to the criminals. If a law like that would be enacted, the criminals would not stop carrying guns but the pleasant citizens of the United States would. Currently, there is three major laws that prohibit specific firearms. The National Firearms Act of 1934 restricts citizens from possessing automatic weapons, hand grenades and other powerful arms. There is another federal law, The Gun Control Act of 1968
Sunday, May 10, 2020
PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Allegory of the CaveÃ¢â¬ is considered a model for Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, because of the struggles and revelations of the prisoner. Guy Montag is the prisoner in the novel. His society, with the fake reality, has caused him to undergo a series of struggles and revelations as he ascends. The novel and the allegory relate because the allegory is an outline for what the novel is.The allegory has a prisoner stage, the bonfire stage and an above ground stage. Montag went from being prisoner and believing in all the fake realities; such as, the fireman rules or any of societies rules. Then to the bonfire stage where Clarisse played a big part in making him realize that books provide meaning to people. After is above ground,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The government and this fake reality have led people to believe that the fake is the truth. The rules that are given to the people is to read books and to not think, but this is already just conditioned int o their minds. Montag because of this reality isnÃ¢â¬â¢t able to feel emotions or form ideas because of his fake realities, that he has seen since he was little. Montag soon begins to enter the bonfire stage. Clarisse, is an observant, curious, open-minded and unique 17 year old girl. Montag, after meeting a couple times with Clarisse, is when his eyes truly open that his society is full of fake realities. He becomes observant and starts asking questions about his society. While being with Clarisse, Montag would smell the leaves and notice the small details; therefore, he was having a shift from being a prisoner to going up to the bonfire. On page #48 it says, Ã¢â¬Å" YouÃ¢â¬â¢re not sick,Ã¢â¬ said Mildred. Montag fell back in bed. He reached under the pillow. The hidden book was still there. Ã¢â¬Å"Mildred, how would it be if, well, maybe I quit my job awhile?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You want to give up everything? After all these years of working, because, one night, some woman and h er books-Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You should have seen her, Millie!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"You werenÃ¢â¬â¢t there, you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see ,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å" There must be something in the books, things we canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine, to make a woman stay in a burning house; there must be something there. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t stay for nothing.Ã¢â¬ This is the event that changed Montags viewpoint on booksShow MoreRelatedFahrenheit 451 And The Allegory Of The Cave By Ray Bradbury952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArdon, Samantha Professor Moore ENG 101 #34285 9 October 2017 Lies Hidden in Truth Most people do not walk to a bookshelf and read a book in a one sitting anymore. Has the current world become similar to the society in Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury? Fahrenheit 451 is set in a future idea of the world, where books are forbidden. Firefighters have a different type of job in this world; instead of putting out fires, they start them. One of the firefighters, Guy Montag, is not as interestedRead MoreThe Frightening Future: Farenheit 451 Essay856 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmore advanced piece of technology is considered Ã¢â¬Å"oddÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"wrongÃ¢â¬ . PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Allegory of the Cave can be related to this idea of ethics in that people in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society who are wrong are trapped in the cave while the people living in Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ are the people that are right. However, this can go both ways, the people that are Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society and are up to date with technology can be the ones considered trapped in a cave b ecause they are missing out on the real world and are living in the virtualRead MoreAnimal Farm And Fahrenheit 451 Literary Analysis811 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesagainst. Again this theme of Ã¢â¬Å"the struggle for freedomÃ¢â¬ is shown in the book Animal Farm by George Orwell, and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. In both of these novels the characters struggle to gain their freedom from the restrictions society placed on them. Freedom is only attained when it is fought for as shown in Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ , Fahrenheit 451, and Animal Farm. In the novel, Fahrenheit 451, Montag struggles for freedom despite societys restrictions. This is demonstrated when Montag is talking toRead MoreThe Sound of Silence Response Essay622 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageslight. Seeing what one was never realized before. It relates well to the allegory of the cave by Plato and the book Fahrenheit 451, it was actually written as a response to this book by Ray Bradbury. This song really shows how people in society do not think, they go along with what is going on and do not question, they do not act upon what is wrong. Many similar ideas found in this song are also found in the book Fahrenheit 451, and in the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Harrison Bergeron,Ã¢â¬ that we read in class.Read MoreOppression By George Orwell And Fahrenheit 4512355 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesachieved in 1984 and Fahrenheit 451 Ã¢â¬ËIf you want a vision of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face Ã¢â¬â foreverÃ¢â¬â¢ OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien explains to Winston whilst torturing him near the end of Nineteen Eighty-Four. It is this sense of oppression which Orwell and Bradbury both portray in their novels. Oppression can be defined as the, Ã¢â¬Ëcruel or unjust use of power or authorityÃ¢â¬â¢. In Nineteen Eighty-Four there is quite a clear sense of cruelness and totalitarianism, whereas in Fahrenheit 451 there is a lessRead MoreHuman Nature In Fahrenheit 4511349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespolitics, one can gain insight as the how they highlight the best or worst of human nature. The Crucible a play by Arthur Miller, is an allegory for the Cold War politics and examines the tensions that occur between one s perception of what is moral according to human nature when constrained by a theocratic society. Fahrenheit 451 a dystopian novel by Ray Bradbury, shows how oppressive governments can never succeed in trying to force conformity in one s human nature. The Lottery is a dystopian shirt
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Behaviorism as the third force in psychology have started out as a theoretical proposition of John B. Watson when he came out with Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology as The Behaviorist Views ItÃ¢â¬ and have been known as the behaviorist manifesto (Benjamin, 1997). Watson proposed that psychology is the study of behavior and have put forth four major assumptions that form the tenets of behaviorism as a school of thought. We will write a custom essay sample on Behaviorism after the founding or any similar topic only for you Order Now The first assumption is that of evolutionary continuity which means that the laws of behavior are applicable to all living organisms. This assumption has substantiated the behavioristÃ¢â¬â¢s use of animals in the study of human behavior. The second assumption is that of reductionism, this refers to the behavioristÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that all behaviors have a physiological basis and that behavior is the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to a stimulus. The third assumption is determinism, behaviorists support the idea that animals respond to external stimuli in specific ways and are inherently programmed into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s brain from birth. The last assumption is empiricism which is one of the cornerstones of behaviorism and that it is the contention that only overt actions or behavior are measurable and observable and lend itself to the scientific method. Thus, to the behaviorist, psychology should be the study of overt behavior. B. F. Skinner was a self-confessed convert to behaviorism after reading WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s monograph; he was also influenced by the experimental studies of Ivan Pavlov (Bjork, 1997). Skinner developed a theory that was based on the classical conditioning paradigm of Pavlov and integrated it with his own definition of behaviorism. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s major work is his theory of operant conditioning, wherein he said that behavior can be conditioned through reinforcement and behavior diminishes when it is not reinforced. He borrowed from Pavlov the basic idea of conditioning, but instead of limiting it to a stimulus-response paradigm, he incorporated the importance of rewards and punishment, which means that behavior is not only exhibited as a response to a stimulus but also as a form of association between the reinforcement given after the behavior. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical position made it obvious that he deviated from WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s radical behaviorism, because conditioning a she defined it involves cognition which Watson has strongly eradicated from his propositions. Moreover, the emphasis given to reinforcements and punishments hint at the need to acknowledge mental processes in the study of behavior. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s work was well received by the academic community much even that WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s initial paper was and this have spurned the interest of like minded psychologists who did support the methodological implications of behaviorism but was not receptive of the radical arguments of Watson. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas made more sense because it did not advocated the idea that men are not thinking beings and were more able to capture how man behaves. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s kind of behaviorism somehow married the opposing views of mind and behavior and also gave importance to how environmental experiences and influences shape human behavior. Moreover, operant conditioning was applicable in a number of areas most notably education, child rearing and animal training (Skinner, 1966). SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviorism has also influenced other psychologists to study and conceptualize psychological phenomena using the principles of operant conditioning and indeed was the kind of behaviorism that has flourished for the last century or so in the field of psychology. Contemporary behaviorism have been identified as the study of social learning, wherein a behavior is learned through socialization and socialization is the process by which behavior is rewarded or punished by society (Smith Woodward, 1996). The evolution of behaviorism from Watson to Skinner and to the present has been made possible by the vast research and theoretical models developed by psychologists who adhere to contemporary behaviorism. One of the hallmarks of behaviorism is the use of animals to study human behavior. Animal research has proven to be useful in understanding how man learns or can be trained to exhibit a certain type of behavior (Benjamin, 1997). Although animal behavior is limited, it nonetheless becomes necessary for behavioral scientists because ethical considerations in using a human subject in risky experiments are not permitted. For example, doing a research on the effect of light illumination to sleep deprivation is probably unethical to do on humans. Although animals are not exactly anatomically similar to humans, animal physiology and anatomy have been well studied and documented that tracing the reactions of mice to light will be easier and scientifically sound. The generalizations made based on this study is however limited but is an acceptable margin of error. Moreover, animals can be easily manipulated and subjected to experiments than humans because they operate on an instinctual level and do not have to process the information given to them. The knowledge gained in studying animals is numerous but especially have been concentrated on learning and behavior and to some extent how drugs affect the brain or the body. Animal research can help us understand human behavior better because to some degree we share with them basic drives that are necessary for our existence and hence, learning how animals react to stress or hunger can give us the information needed to adequately explain behavior. Animals exhibit simple behaviors which humans share and have grown in complexity over the years but if analyzed is based still on simple behaviors. References Benjamin, L. (1997) A History of Psychology: Original Sources and Contemporary Research 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Ã¢â¬âHill. Bjork, D. (1997) B. F. Skinner: A Life. Washington: American Psychological Association. Skinner, B. F. (1966). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. 7th printing. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Smith, L. Woodward, W. (1996). B. F Skinner and Behaviorism in American Culture. London: Lehigh University Press How to cite Behaviorism after the founding, Papers
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Introduction: Contemporary U.S. Management and Its Specifics The world of entrepreneurship is facing a new era, i.e., the epoch when the informational civilization is being born, with information quickly becoming the main and the most valuable article of trade, the necessity of being able to use this commodity the right way appears.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Knowledge Management: Practices as Found in Contemporary American Business and Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The vast amounts of information and the need to process them quickly have spawned the creation of a new type of management Ã¢â¬â knowledge management, with an appropriate theory to support it. However, even more striking changes have come, contributing to shaping the process of knowledge management. Because of the numerous factors that contribute to shaping the knowledge management system, as well as the availability of information combined with the need to distribute it fast and evenly, the modern knowledge management is currently facing a number of challenges that an efficient system of knowledge sharing can possibly help deal with. Knowledge Management Definitions: What Lurks Behind the Term Knowledge management might seem a very straightforward process that cannot be possibly misinterpreted. Since the KM process involves dealing with knowledge, it must presuppose the strategy of information disposal. The latter, however, involves a plethora of elements and factors, which shape the knowledge management strategy, dictating specific steps to be undertaken. Hence, knowledge management as a phenomenon can be considered from different points of view. Depending on what the focus is, the definition of knowledge management may vary. When the Focus Is on Knowledge Putting the emphasis on the significance of knowledge acquisition, the first and the most comprehensive definition of knowledge management sta tes the purpose of KM as the means to obtain information. However, the given approach towards understanding the principles of KM puts every single agent of the given process in its place, distributing responsibilities among the supposed staff of the supposed organization. KM can be defined as the process of organization management that is aimed at revealing the knowledge base of the given organization (Snyder Wilson, 2000, 527). Therefore, knowledge management can be considered as a means to promote a more efficient knowledge sharing system.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When People Are in the Spotlight Weirdly enough, the definition of knowledge management does not necessarily put information into the spotlight. In some of the definitions, not knowledge, but the knowledge sender and receiver are focused on, which is rather reasonable. Thus, the key function of k nowledge management, which is the transfer of information, is stressed. With the help of such a definition, one can shed some light on the function of knowledge management as a means to establish trustworthy relationships between the employees instead of stating the obvious: Ã¢â¬Å"Knowledge management is about choosing the right practices or tools to efficiently enhance communications among the staffÃ¢â¬ (Batten, 2008, 86). Therefore, knowledge management can be understood as the set of rules on information sharing that will at the same time reflect the company hierarchy, organization ethics, and culture. Performing several additional functions, such as coordinating the relationships between employees, KM can also serve as a means to change the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s climate. When the Process Is Important Apart from knowledge functions, the existing definitions of knowledge management also describe the specifics of the process itself. Therefore, KM can be viewed as a series of steps t hat have to be undertaken in order to achieve the goal and distribute information efficiently. Therefore, the following definition can be provided: knowledge management is a process that consists of a set of activities that lead to discovering, capturing, sharing and applying knowledge, so that the goal achievement of the organization could be enhanced in the most efficient way possible (Becerra-Fernandez Gabherval, 2009, 56). That being said, knowledge management could be viewed as a range of actions that must be performed in order to reach a specific goal. When the Goals Are Addressed As it has been shown in the example above, another way to interpret KM is to view it as a tool for achieving specific goals, as well as establishing them. On a basic level, knowledge management serves a purpose of improving the information distribution across the company; therefore, it can be defined as the means to hit a specific target.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Knowledge Management: Practices as Found in Contemporary American Business and Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Though the definition provided by Fernandez and Gabherval does mention the existence of the target in question, they still stress that learning the succession of actions is the key to understanding the principles of knowledge management. Thierauf, however, offers a slightly different approach that shifts the emphasis precisely on the goal of the organization. As Thierauf (1999) explains, knowledge management is not a process, but a system that allows to Ã¢â¬Å"provide competitive advantage by giving decision makers (from the highest level to the lowest level) the necessary insights into patterns and trends that affect their domainÃ¢â¬ (Thierauf, 1999, 5). In fact, the given statement also correlates with the idea that KM can be used as a means to regulate the relationships between the staff members. To be mo re exact, the given definition suggests that KM can be used as a tool that introduces a specific hierarchy into the organization. Knowledge Management and Competitive Advantage Finally, the effects of efficient knowledge management should be considered as the basis for knowledge management definition. Thus, one will be able to obtain an objective definition of what knowledge management actually is. That being said, knowledge management could be viewed as not only a process, but also a practice and even a culture of creating or gathering, analyzing, distributing and sharing organizational knowledge. In other words, KM can be viewed as a means to enhance the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage by using the provided information efficiently. According to what Wallace (2007) says, knowledge management can be identified as the process that allows to capture, process and transfer knowledge so that the organization could achieve a greater competitive advantage (Wallace, 2007, 3). Therefo re, it is clear that the definition of knowledge management in a particular case depends on the priorities that a company sets and the goals that it wants to achieve. Modern U.S. Business Sphere and Knowledge Management Practices: An Overview Grown into a massive set of theories with an even greater number of ideas concerning its practical applications, knowledge management seems to have become a cult principle in the present-day business world. Hence a plethora of various types of knowledge management practices, as well as the interpretation of their effects and the discussion of their impact on the organizational ensued.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking a closer look at how knowledge management practices are implemented nowadays, one can possibly evaluate their effect, consider their limitations and come up with the suggestions for their possible improvement. Types of Knowledge Management Practices Knowledge management comes in different variations depending on the type of an organization, the specifics of the chosen leadership strategy, the organizational culture, etc. Therefore, one can distinguish a large variety of knowledge management types. However, it is worth noting that of all the possible types, five key knowledge management practices for organizations can be distinguished. According to Gray and Chan, there are typically four types of knowledge management practices distinguished. It is worth noting, however, that the classification below is based on considering a knowledge management practice as a tool for a problem-solving process. Encouraging Serendipity Though the given practice should be viewed as a means of wo rking with individual employees instead of a tool for shaping the knowledge processing stage within the entire team, encouraging serendipity is a crucial element of the knowledge management process nowadays. While it is important to provide a solid basis for the assumptions so that the company could make the right step, it is also necessary to encourage serendipity among the organization members. Often based on a small detail that passed unnoticed yet left an impact on a person, serendipity allows to consider all the existing options and sometimes even provide the option that has never been noticed before. Creating Knowledge Opposed to the process of informing the members of an organization on a specific issue, the process of knowledge creation can also be considered one of the most popular modern business practices. Another important knowledge management practice, creating knowledge is often confused with acquiring knowledge, mostly due to the meaning of the word Ã¢â¬Å"creatingÃ¢â ¬ as a synonym to Ã¢â¬Å"making.Ã¢â¬ Knowledge creation, however, does not mean that knowledge is somehow produced; in fact, knowledge creation is the process of transforming tacit knowledge into explicit one, as Nakamori (2012) explains, the entire process presupposes the transformation of individual tacit knowledge into group tacit knowledge, which is then shaped into an individual explicit knowledge and finally becomes an individual tacit knowledge. Raising Awareness The given type of knowledge management practice can also be considered the approach suitable for individuals rather than for shaping the relationships among the entire staff. Aimed at helping every single member of the team recognize a specific problem, the given practice aims at capturing and retaining knowledge rather than sharing and distributing it. At present, such types of knowledge management practices include the creation of databases, analysis of reviews and the lessons learned, etc. Therefore, the giv en approach can be considered as the means to improve the organization memory rather than the method to share a specific bit of information with the rest of the company members. Quiet an efficient tool, though, it should be used along with the rest of the practices mentioned in the given paper. Along, however, the given approach is unlikely to lead a company anywhere. Acquiring Knowledge In contrast to the previous two practices, knowledge creation concerns every single member of the company staff. It is crucial to realize that knowledge must be accessible for every single member of an organization; otherwise, the lack of information will inevitably lead an organization to failure. Therefore, the most important stage in the given process is to provide the access to the information since the very moment the knowledge was acquired. Consequently, it is required that every member of an organization should participate in the process of knowledge acquisition. The given practice is usually used to make the members of an organization closer, as well as increase their awareness of a specific issue. As it has already been mentioned, it would be worn to assume that the types of knowledge management listed above are the only possible options. The choice of a particular type of knowledge management or a combination of types is predetermined by a large number of factors, both interior and exterior ones, which means that, at the end of the day, the right choice of knowledge management strategy depends on a careful evaluation of these factors, as well as the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s current goals. Effects of Knowledge Management Practices Knowledge management practices are nowadays considered the key to an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success Ã¢â¬â or, on the contrary, its complete failure, depending on whether the choice of a specific knowledge management practice was justified by the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and assets or not. Apart from the direct influence on the companyÃ¢â¬ â¢s performance, knowledge management practice also affects the relationships between the members of the staff, shapes the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and has a tangible impact on the corporate values. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the extent to which knowledge management influences an organization. KM Practices and Organizational Culture As it has been mentioned above, knowledge management practice is related directly to the organizational culture; moreover, these two elements seem to have an effect on each other, becoming, therefore, mutually dependent. A specific KM practice can affect the organizational culture; in its turn, organizational culture predetermines the choice of a knowledge management practice. KM Nomenclature in Modern U.S. Business Needless to say, since the idea of knowledge management was introduced into the U.S. business, much has been changed, including the manner of classifying the existing types of knowledge management. At present, the following type s of knowledge management can be found in contemporary American business: Internal Knowledge Management Used to improve the organizational performance of the staff, internal knowledge management presupposes the efficient distribution of the information concerning the organization among its members. Knowledge Dissemination Knowledge dissemination involves creating knowledge in order to represent an organization and make it competitive. With the help of the transformations described above, tacit knowledge possessed by a group of people is turned into a tacit knowledge that an individual has concerning a specific issue. As Dalkir (2005) says, Ã¢â¬Å"Dissemination works best when it is an organized activityÃ¢â¬ (93). Knowledge Brokering Knowledge brokering demands tracking the source of information, evaluating its veracity and value. Hence, the idea of knowledge brokering can be summarized by saying that it means tracing the origin and source of specific information. Thus, an organiz ation can have a better control over the available information, which is another upgrade in the knowledge management practice development. Building Knowledge Capacity Building knowledge capacity means raising the membersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to operate the information that is currently at their disposal. Indeed, sometimes searching for the necessary information and the ability to process it fast and efficiently is not enough. It is also required to use the knowledge appropriately, which building knowledge capacity teaches. Knowledge Management in the Global Environment: An Analysis When analyzing the process of knowledge management in an organization, one must keep in mind that modern companies work in the environment on which globalization has taken its toll and, therefore, shapes the process of knowledge management greatly. On the one hand, the fact that information can be accessed much faster and in a much easier way is doubtlessly a benefit. On the other hand, such openness leaves an organization extremely vulnerable towards the external factors, competitors and hackers. Hence, the entire palette of opportunities and threats must be viewed. Capturing Organizational Knowledge: The Threats There is no doubt that the key stage in gathering information is the very start. At this point, such crucial questions as what sources are the most trustworthy, what kind of information is necessary for the given project, where exactly the given information can be found, etc. are solved. Since globalization has shaped the existing information sources considerably, the process of capturing information has become both easier and at the same time more challenging. Retaining Organizational Knowledge: The Challenges What might seem the easiest task often presupposes dealing with the greatest amount of issues, a case in point being the task of retaining information. While keeping organizational knowledge does not presuppose carrying out any specific actions compared to the process of getting information, it is still very painstaking, mostly because of the necessity to have clear links between every bit of information. Accessing Organizational Knowledge: The Methods As soon as the necessary information has been located, obtained and arranged, it is essential to thin through the methods of accessing the given data sets. While in the global environment, accessibility has become the key asset of most information, it is still important to keep in mind that the required data must be secured properly. Using Organizational Knowledge: Winning the Competition The last, but definitely not the least, the stage of putting the stored information to practice has become quite complicated in the realm of global economics and business. Because of high competition rates, it is important to know exactly how, when and where to use the information in question appropriately. The Future of Knowledge Management Though at present, theory of knowledge management seems rather innovative a nd offering brand-new approach, it is quite predictable that the Theory of Knowledge as people know it today is going to be very dated in the next few years. According to the latest information concerning the possible changes that the knowledge management is going to face in the future, it can be assumed that three major innovations are going to be implemented. Anticipatory Delivery of Knowledge Globalization has set the entire world to a completely different pace. Every single process has become times faster, therefore, demanding that organizational operations should also consume as little time as possible. Therefore, it is essential that the members of an organization should be able to develop their anticipatory skills. Anticipating the on-coming information is especially important because of its availability. With the progress of the Internet, information can be obtained within milliseconds, which means that the perceptual speed becomes the decisive point in the competition. Conn ection between People In the world where globalization has taken its toll on the realm of business, it is necessary to understand that members of a specific organization can be miles apart from each other. Therefore, the need to introduce efficient connection between people arises. With the help of the latest technological innovations, the given goal becomes quite attainable. In the light of stiff competition, which most companies face nowadays, the ability to transfer information quickly is worth its weight in gold. Connected Knowledge Being able to gather information and process it quickly is important, yet there is one more crucial element of the process, i.e., putting the pieces of the information together. Facts rarely come in a full package Ã¢â¬â often one has to search for scraps of data and only then collect them into a whole. Hence the new trend in knowledge management, connected knowledge, comes. Aimed at keeping all the available bits of information so that they could be easily re-arranged if one more bit reinvents the entire perception of the issue in question, the principle of connected knowledge is definitely worth developing further on as a guiding principle of knowledge management in modern U.S. business. Research Findings Summary and Interpretation Judging by the above-mentioned evidence, the key problem of modern knowledge management stems from the total availability of information, which leads to complexities of filtering and evaluating it. In addition, the research has shown that knowledge management practice must be considered in the context of the factors surrounding it. While the modern idea of knowledge management practice can be referred to as a people-focused, it still revolves around a number of other aspects, such as the type of organization, the specifics of the organizational culture, the leadership style of the head of the company, the size of the organization, etc. However, the focus of the knowledge management practice still seems to be on people rather than on anything else. Because of the influence that globalization has on organizations nowadays, it is important to make sure that every single member of the organization or its affiliate, no matter in what remote corner of the Earth it might be located, should know about the latest changes in the company information to deliver adequate performance. Therefore, the focus on people, which most present-day organizations prefer to the rest of the approaches, seems more than reasonable. It is noteworthy, however, that the current knowledge management practices display two diametrically opposite tendencies, i.e., the tendency to focus on an individual as opposed to the focus on the team. Logically, for the successful implementation of the company goals, both techniques must be applied; the priority, however, depends on the specifics of information distribution within a company. Conclusion: Paving the Road to Better Knowledge Management Although the theory of knowledge management is relatively new, it has already grown into a huge set of concepts, building up to the introduction of the KM concept in the globalized environment and providing the foil for the development of new theories. Incorporating the previous experience with the new ideas, one can possibly come up with a perfect strategy for knowledge management; however, the problem is that the given suggestion will only last for as long as the environment in which it was created will. Therefore, the basic goal for the knowledge management theorists at present is not to suggest a perfect knowledge management strategy, but to make sure that the current strategy is being constantly updated according to the latest changes in the data. Thus, one can rest assured that the organization will keep running for quite a while. Reference List Becerra-Fernandez, I. Gabherval, R. (2009). Knowledge management: Systems and processes. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Burlington, MA: Elsevier ButterworthÃ¢â¬âHeinemann. Nakamori, Y. (2012). Knowledge science: Modeling the knowledge creation process. Broken Sound Parkway, NW: CRC Press. Snyder, C. A. Wilson, L. T. (2000). Implementing knowledge management: Issues for managers. In Information Resources Management Association International Conference (Ed.), Challenges of information technology management in the 21st century: [Proceedings of The] 2000 Information Resources Management Association Ã¢â¬â International Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, May 21-24, 2000. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing. Thierauf, R. J. (1999). Knowledge management systems for business. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. Wallace, D. P. (2007). Knowledge management: Historical and cross-disciplinary themes. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. This research paper on Knowledge Management: Practices as Found in Contemporary American Business and Management was written and submitted by user Zackery Acosta to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.